Tissue Engineering is based on the development of tissue scaffolds that control cell migration, adhesion and differentiation in order to restore damaged tissues or organs.
The scaffold biomaterials support cellular processes and tissue growth and maintain a biomechanical stability similar to the native tissue.
Nanodiamonds biocompatibility, stability, hardness, and versatile surfaces make them suitable for a broad range of applications in regenerative medicine. Recent studies show promising results for bone and neural tissue engineering.
Nanodiamonds tunable surfaces can be designed to control cell adhesion and proliferation.
For example, the surface charge of nanodiamonds can be tuned to facilitate physical adsorption of cell-adhesive serum proteins, like fibronectin. In turn, the adsorbed serum proteins will allow the adhesion of a variety of cell types 1. For instance, hydrophilic surface of nanodiamonds maximizes the biological activity both in vitro and in vivo 2.
Nanodiamond monolayers can also support the formation of functional neuronal networks 3.
Successful tissue scaffolds should possess mechanical properties similar to those of the original tissue. For instance, scaffolds for bone regeneration should exhibit mechanical strength and support significant mechanical loads. Bio-resorbable polymers, commonly used for tissue scaffolds have weak mechanical strength. Diamond nanofillers, with superior hardness, reinforce the polymer matrix. The variable surface chemistry and unique properties of nanodiamonds allow the creation of multifunctional nanocomposites, such as polymeric bone scaffolds reinforced by nanodiamonds 4.
Nanodiamonds can be specially functionalized for reinforcing polymer scaffolds and for drug release in the engineered tissue simultaneously. The engineered scaffolds in this case release therapeutic biomolecules adsorbed on the nanodiamond surface 5.
- K. Hristova, et al., Improved interaction of osteoblast-like cells with apatite-nanodiamond coatings depends on fibronectin, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 22 (8) (2011) 1891–1900.
- Z. Xing, et al., Biological effects of functionalizing copolymer scaffolds with nanodiamond particles, Tissue Eng. A 19 (15–16) (2013) 1783–1791.
- R.J. Edgington, et al., Patterned neuronal networks using nanodiamonds and the effect of varying nanodiamond properties on neuronal adhesion and outgrowth, J. Neural Eng. 10 (5) (2013) 056022
- M.A. Brady, et al., Development of composite poly(lactideglycolide)- nanodiamond scaffolds for bone cell growth, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 15 (2) (2015) 1060–1069
- M.M. Schimke, et al., Biofunctionalization of scaffold material with nano-scaled diamond particles physisorbed with angiogenic factors enhances vessel growth after implantation, Nanomedicine 12 (3) (2016) 823–833.